Before a medication or new device for treatment of medical issues is available to the public, it must be reviewed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and approved for public use. The EMA does this to learn more about the product and make sure that it is effective and safe.

To get EMA approval, the company that makes the medication or device is required to conduct clinical trials of the medication.

The companies ask people to volunteer for clinical trials. In these trials, volunteers are given the investigational medication or device and are evaluated by trial doctors and staff members.

After clinical trials are completed, the pharmaceutical company submits the trial information to the EMA. The EMA reviews this information and decides if the investigational medication or device can become available to the public.